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HomeComputer ScienceTYPES OF COMPUTERS INTRODUCTION The Basis of Work



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The Computer is an electronic device which accepts the Input and processes them to give the desired output. There are various types of computers available on the market. We can classify the computer as special purpose computers and general purpose computers.

Special purpose computers are applicable on paericular application area and have limited area for application but general purpose computers are the standers computers used for general application like word processing. Spreadsheet, database application internet access, program development, etc.


Computers are classified on the basis of wait on the basis of size. On the basis of the model and on the basis of brand It Is also divided into general purpose and special purse.
We ran classify the computer Into following broad categories, and each category has its own categories given as below:

types of computer

On the above diagram we have seen that there are two types of computers special purpose and general purpose computers. General purpose computers are the digital computers and special purpose computers are mostly analog and hybrid computers. This classification is according to the working principle or function of the computers. According to the functional style also we have three types of computers: Analog, Digital and Hybrid computers.

types of computer

Types of Computer On The Basis of Work


1.Analog Computer

An analog computer is one that measures physical values such as temperature or pressure that fall along a continuous scale in temperature or pressure. For example. a sets ice station gasoline pump contains an analog processor and analog device that converts fuel flow measurements into quantity and price values. The term analog computer is derived from a Greek word Analog. Speedometer in cars is another example of analog computer.

The special features are :

  • It is a special purpose computer.
  • It works with natural or physical values.
  • It may not have any storage capacity. if has also cannot store more.
  • The output is continuous.
  • Lower cost in the comparison of digital computer. Presley is an example of analog computer
  1. Digital Computer

A digital computer is one that directly counts numbers or digits that present numbers. letters. or other special symbol. Digital computer does not measure the distance or does not measure how many liters of petrol are taken or what is the pressure of compressions etc. Digital computers are the most used computer for report. documentations. billing and other graphical work. The entire PC used today on different fields is the microcomputers.

  1. Hybrid Computer

These are the computers. which work on digital as well as analog computer type I he good qualities of analog and digital computers are combined on these computers made the hybrid computer. These are used on Intensive care unit of hospital. jet planes and others data analysis terminals. Hybrid computer transfer the data from analog to digital and digital to analog and vice versa.

Types OS computer basis of size

We can classify the computers on the basis of size as below :

  1. Super Computer

Multi-user, multiprocessor large computer of very high efficiency and storing capacity is called supercomputer able to solve very difficult and complex problem within a nana seconds. A number of RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processors are used. Its word length is 64 bits.


  • used to forecast the weather and global climates
  • used in military research and defense systems
  • in automobile, aircraft, and space craft designing
  • in encrypting and decoding sensitive intelligence information
  • used in seismography, plasma and nuclear research.
  • Protein folding analysis
  • Study of DNA structure and gene engineering
  • Digital film rendering


C-DAC (Center for Development of Advanced Computer) of India has developed PARAM series of Super Computer. ANURAG is also Indian Super Computer. Other Super computers are CRAY XMP/14, CDC-205 etc. Mr. Seymour Cray was a pioneer person in the field of supercomputer production. He had developed the first super computer Cray-1 in 1976.

  1. Mainframe Computer

It is also very powerful multi-user computer used in large business organizations, examination department of examinations, industries and defense to process data of complex nature. It can response several hundred request very quickly. It uses several CPU for data processing. More than 100 users can use at a time because it works on time sharing mode. Its word length is 48 bits to 64 bits. IBM built the first Mainframe Computer. System/ 360. in 1964.


  • Government and civilian
  • Credit card processing
  • Bank Account management
  • Marketing
  • Business data processing In large organization
  • Air traffic control system
  • Industrial design


IBM S/390, IBM S/709. ICL 39, CDC 6600

  1. Minicomputer

Minicomputers are larger and more powerful than most microcomputers but are smaller and less powerful than most large mainframe computer systems. However. this is not a precise destination. High-end models of microcomputer systems (supermicros) are more powerful than some midrange computers, while high-end models of midrange systems (supernuni) are more powerful than some smaller models of mainframe computers. It is also multi-user computer and supports more than dozens of people at a time. It is costlier than microcomputer. It is also used in university, large business organizations to process complex data. It is also used in scientific research. instrumentation system. engineering analysis. and industrial process monitoring and control. In the figure. VAX is shown. Example

POP-11, VAX etc.

  1. Microcomputer

In 1976 the first Personal Computer – Apple-1, Apple Computer is designed. In 1981 August. IBM was announced the IBM 5150 PC, in New York. Now a day mostly used computers are microcomputers. It is called Home PC or Personal computer (PC) because it is a single user computer. It supports many higher level languages. multimedia. graphics. 3D graphics and games. It is popular among students. professionals and home wives due to small size. low price. and low maintenance cost and easy in operation. The Internet is popular due to PC and it is available for all income groups. The American weekly magazine regarded it ‘Machine of year” in 1982 when IBM lunched PC in market first time. The first IBM PC was equipped with following components:

  • Intel 8088 Processor of 4.77 MHz
  • 64 KB RAM (expandable to 256 KB)
  • 40MB ROM
  • 5.25″ floppy drive(160KB)
  • PC-DOS 1.0(MS DOS)


IBM PCs, Apple Mac, IBM PS/2, etc.

Introduction Of Operating System


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